New Developments for Prosecuting Airplane Crimes in the Ninth Circuit

Arizona State Law Journal Blog
By Nathan Lilly. Background Monique Lozoya was sitting in the middle seat on the second-to-last row of a Delta Airlines flight traveling from Minneapolis to Los Angeles when she felt the passenger behind her kicking her seat. She tried ignoring it, as many of us would do, but when the culprit got up to use the bathroom, she decided that she would confront him. When he returned to his seat, sparks flew. The passenger said Lozoya got aggressive and smacked him in the face, but Lozoya claimed that when she asked him to stop kicking her seat, the passenger got in her face, and she responded instinctively by shoving his face away. Either way, the passenger decided to press charges after his nose started bleeding. When the plane landed at…
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The State Law Affecting the Nation: A Quick Dive into the CCPA

Arizona State Law Journal Blog
By Yinan Guo. Maybe you have noticed that, for the past month or so, companies have been sending out emails regarding their updated privacy policy. Chances are you ignored them without taking a look, like every time before when you checked the “I agree” box. What’s interesting is that this wave of updates is a response to a California statute—the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA)—which took effect on January 1, 2020. Although this is a state statute, it is already having a nationwide impact, and has the potential to shape the future of data privacy laws in the United States. I Don’t Live in California, Why Am I Receiving These Emails? A business with a presence in California is required to comply with the CCPA if it has an annual…
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Supreme Court to Decide Landmark Trademark Case in 2020

Arizona State Law Journal Blog
By Marissa Gibbens. In its 2020 cycle, the Supreme Court will review the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals’ decision in United States Patent and Trademark Office v. Booking.com B.V. The Court will decide whether the addition of the term “.com” can turn a generic term (such as the term, “booking”) into a protectable trademark. The company Booking.com B.V. runs online hotel reservation services which most people recognize as “Booking.com.” In 2012, Booking.com B.V. went to the United States Patent and Trademark Office intending to register “Booking.com” as a U.S. trademark. The company had just registered “Booking.com” as an international trademark in 2011. USPTO, reasoning that the term “Booking.com” was too generic, did not grant the registration, however. Generic terms cannot be registered as trademarks under the Lanham Act, also known…
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Accelerated Termination Proceedings in Arizona: When the State Takes Away a Child

Arizona State Law Journal Blog
By George Gould. Background The Arizona Supreme Court has recently decided another case—Trisha A. v. Department of Child Safety—on a controversial law in Arizona juvenile courts. In juvenile court, there exists a mechanism for accelerating severance procedures. When accelerated, a termination hearing is transmuted, by the rules, into a severance hearing. Unfortunately, the language explaining the “good cause” standard appeared to vary across the rules. Arizona Supreme Court Decision The Arizona Supreme Court took this case to decide whether or not there was a conflict in the rules. The Court found that the “good cause” standard is different under different rules “because the rules act in different contexts.” A meritorious defense requirement is not required under Rules 64(C), 65(C), and 66(D)(2) because these rules center on the justification for the…
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Ag-gag: The Intersection of Agriculture, Animal Welfare, and Free Speech

Arizona State Law Journal Blog
By Avery Topel. In the summer of 2019, an animal advocacy group conducted an undercover investigation of Fair Oaks Farms in Indiana. Secretly recorded video revealed employees beating calves with metal rebar, abusing cattle with hot branding irons, and denying cows veterinary care. After the video went public, the employees were fired and charged with animal cruelty. But in some states, it could be the advocates that filmed who face criminal charges.  Referred to as ag-gag laws, eleven states have passed laws that criminalize undercover investigations of agriculture operations. Some of these laws flatly prohibit filming agriculture operations without permission, while others criminalize lying to get inside. Most investigations by animal welfare groups are employment based, meaning advocates deceptively obtain jobs with the intent to film once inside. Thus, when…
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A Trip Down Mammary Lane: Will Arizona’s Workplaces Have Space for Nursing Mothers?

Arizona State Law Journal Blog
By Daniel Restrepo. As positive attitudes toward breastfeeding have increased in the last decade, so too have the number of breastfeeding discrimination lawsuits. However, there is uncertainty as to what rights mothers have to pumping in the workplace. Courts are split as to the scope of breastfeeding protections in the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (“PDA”) and Fair Labor Standards Act (“FLSA”), and the Ninth Circuit has yet to weigh in on the matter. In Arizona, two cases have taken on this issue: Behan v. Lolo’s Incorporated (D. Ariz. 2019) and Clark v. City of Tucson (D. Ariz. 2018). Given the City of Tucson has filed an appeal challenging Ms. Clark’s four-million-dollar verdict received on April 12, 2019, the states of the Ninth Circuit may soon have an answer regarding a nursing…
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When Life Gives You Lemons, You Ignore Them: The State of the Lemon Test After American Legion v. American Humanist Society

Arizona State Law Journal Blog
By Lauren Malm. The Establishment Clause and the Lemon Test The First Amendment provides that “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.” Commonly known as the “Establishment Clause,” this clause prohibits government promotion or entanglement with religion and religious organizations. While government can provide religious organizations with general public benefits like fire or police protection, the question becomes: at what point does government action move from general benefits to an unconstitutional establishment of religion? The Supreme Court attempted to distill all Establishment Clause jurisprudence into a single, three-pronged test in Lemon v. Kurtzman. To pass the Lemon test, a statute must have a “secular legislative purpose,” the primary effect must not “advance[] or inhibit[] religion,” and the statute must not foster an “excessive government entanglement with religion.”…
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Attempted Murder is Violent, Murder is Not

Arizona State Law Journal Blog
By Alexandra Klein. In August of 2019, the Ninth Circuit held in United States v. Begay that second-degree murder was not a “crime of violence.” You read that right. Second-degree murder is categorically not a crime of violence. The Facts In 2013, Randly Begay was arguing in a car with his then girlfriend, Meghan Williams, regarding rumors that she was cheating on him with Roderick Ben. While Ben was in the car, Begay took out his gun and laid it on his leg. Begay continued to argue with Williams and then shot Ben in the head, stating he was not scared to go to prison for life. Subsequently, Begay was charged with and convicted of murder in the second degree and discharging a firearm during a crime of violence. The…
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Unconstitutionally Listed for Life?

Arizona State Law Journal Blog
By Sierra Brown. Case Study: Phillip B. v. McKay In 2018, Phillip B. worked as a caregiver at New Horizons, a group home for male children. On July 6, 2018, a fifteen-year-old resident of the home called the Arizona Department of Child Safety (“DCS”), alleging that Phillip pressed his elbow against the throat of a thirteen-year-old resident, G.C., until he “made a gasping sound.” During its investigation, DCS interviewed two residents that were present during the incident, including the teen who called DCS. They provided similar accounts, explaining that G.C. was unable to breath when appellant forcibly pressed on his neck. However, G.C. told DCS that appellant had grabbed his shirt by the neck. DCS also interviewed appellant and another caregiver who was present at the scene. They consistently denied…
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A Novel Solution to the Multiple Causation Problem

Arizona State Law Journal Blog
By Sterling Johnson. What is the proper method of allocating liability where A and B owe contract duties to C under separate contracts, and each breaches independently, and it is not reasonably possible to make a division of the damage caused by the separate breaches? This is called the multiple causation problem, and Arizona needs a statutory solution. Approaches Taken in Other Jurisdictions Arizona courts have not considered the multiple causation problem. The jurisdictions that have considered it generally adopt one of two solutions. In a majority of jurisdictions, if a defendant’s (A or B) breach of contract was a substantial factor in causing the plaintiff’s injury, the defendant bears full responsibility for it even though there were other contributing causes. A substantial factor is defined as something that is…
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